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In an independent nation, the Church anticipated retaining its power. Central America was originally planned to be part of the Mexican Empire; but it seceded peacefully in , forming the United Provinces of Central America under the Constitution of The Viceroyalty of New Spain united many regions and provinces of the Spanish Empire throughout half a world.
In the Caribbean it included Cuba, Santo Domingo , most of the Venezuelan mainland and the other islands in the Caribbean controlled by the Spanish.
The outpost at Nootka Sound, on Vancouver Island , was considered part of the province of California.
The Viceroyalty was administered by a viceroy residing in Mexico City and appointed by the Spanish monarch , who had administrative oversight of all of these regions, although most matters were handled by the local governmental bodies, which ruled the various regions of the viceroyalty.
First among these were the audiencias , which were primarily superior tribunals, but which also had administrative and legislative functions.
Each of these was responsible to the Viceroy of New Spain in administrative matters though not in judicial ones , but they also answered directly to the Council of the Indies.
Audiencia districts further incorporated the older, smaller divisions known as governorates gobernaciones , roughly equivalent to provinces , which had been originally established by conquistador-governors known as adelantados.
Provinces which were under military threat were grouped into captaincies general , such as the Captaincies General of the Philippines established and Guatemala established in mentioned above, which were joint military and political commands with a certain level of autonomy.
The viceroy was captain-general of those provinces that remained directly under his command. At the local level there were over two hundred districts, in both Indian and Spanish areas, which were headed by either a corregidor also known as an alcalde mayor or a cabildo town council , both of which had judicial and administrative powers.
In the late 18th century the Bourbon dynasty began phasing out the corregidores and introduced intendants , whose broad fiscal powers cut into the authority of the viceroys, governors and cabildos.
Despite their late creation, these intendancies so affected the formation of regional identity that they became the basis for the nations of Central America and the first Mexican states after independence.
The Captaincy Generals were the second-level administrative divisions and these were relatively autonomous. With dates of creation:.
As part of the sweeping eighteenth-century administrative and economic changes known as the Bourbon Reforms , the Spanish crown created new administrative units called intendancies.
The intendencies aimed at strengthening Crown control over the viceroyalty and measures aimed to break the monopoly that local elites had in the municipal government in order to improve the economy of the empire, and other reforms including the improvement of the public participation in communal affairs, distribution of undeveloped lands to the Indians and Spaniards, end the corruption practices of the mayors, it also sought to favor handicrafts and encourage trade and mining, and establish a system of territorial division similar to the model created by the government of France , already adopted in Spain.
These acted together with the general captaincies and the viceroyalties, they never changed the traditional administrative divisions, intendancies found strong resistance by the viceroyalties, general captaincies also found great rejection in the Iberian peninsula when it was adopted , royal audiencias and ecclesiastical hierarchs for its important intervention in economic issues, by its centralist politics and by its opposition to cede very much of their functions to the intendants, to whom they bound them with a crown absolutism; in this context there was the outbreak of the Revolution of Independence of the English colonies in North America , which forced to protest the central points of the reformist program in the Spanish Americas, because due to the war with England in which Spain participated, it was not convenient to apply for the moment drastic measures that would put at risk the financial support of the Spanish-American subsidies; all this prevented its full application.
In turn, many of the intendancy boundaries became Mexican state boundaries after independence. The high courts, or audiencias , were established in major areas of Spanish settlement.
In New Spain the high court was established in , prior to the establishment of the viceroyalty.
The First Audiencia was dissolved and the Second Audiencia established. In the colonial period, basic patterns of regional development emerged and strengthened.
The North was outside the area of complex indigenous populations, inhabited primarily by nomadic and hostile northern indigenous groups. With the discovery of silver in the north, the Spanish sought to conquer or pacify those peoples in order to exploit the mines and develop enterprises to supply them.
Nonetheless, much of northern New Spain had sparse indigenous population and attracted few Europeans.
The Spanish crown and later the Republic of Mexico did not effectively exert sovereignty over the region, leaving it vulnerable to the expansionism of the United States in the nineteenth century.
Regional characteristics of colonial Mexico have been the focus of considerable study within the vast scholarship on centers and peripheries.
The picture is far more complex, however; while the capital is enormously important as the center of power of various kinds institutional, economic, social , the provinces played a significant role in colonial Mexico.
Regions provinces developed and thrived to the extent that they were sites of economic production and tied into networks of trade.
Mexico City was the center of the Central region, and the hub of New Spain. The development of Mexico City itself is extremely important to the development of New Spain as a whole.
It was the seat of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, the Archdiocese of the Catholic Church, the Holy Office of the Inquisition , the merchants' guild consulado , and home of the most elite families in the Kingdom of New Spain.
Mexico City was the single-most populous city, not just in New Spain, but for many years the entire Western Hemisphere, with a high concentration of mixed-race castas.
Significant regional development grew along the main transportation route from the capital east to the port of Veracruz. Alexander von Humboldt called this area "Mesa de Anahuac", which can be defined as the adjacent valleys of Puebla, Mexico, and Toluca, enclosed by high mountains, along with their connections to the Gulf Coast port of Veracruz and the Pacific port of Acapulco , where over half the population of New Spain lived.
This challenge persisted during the post-independence years until the late nineteenth-century construction of railroads. In the colonial era and up until the railroads were built in key areas, mule trains were the main mode of transporting goods.
Mules were used because unpaved roads and mountainous terrain could not generally accommodate carts. In the late eighteenth century the crown devoted some resources to the study and remedy the problem of poor roads.
The Camino Real royal road between the port of Veracruz and the capital had some short sections paved and bridges constructed. The construction was done despite protests from some Indian villages when the infrastructure improvements, which sometimes included rerouting the road through communal lands.
The Spanish crown finally decided that road improvement was in the interests of the state for military purposes, as well as for fomenting commerce, agriculture, and industry, but the lack of state involvement in the development of physical infrastructure was to have lasting effects constraining development until the late nineteenth century.
Although the crown had ambitious plans for both the Toluca and Veracruz portions of the king's highway, actual improvements were limited to a localized network.
Veracruz was the first Spanish settlement founded in what became New Spain, and it endured as the only viable Gulf Coast port, the gateway for Spain to New Spain.
The difficult topography around the port affected local development and New Spain as a whole. Going from the port to the central plateau entailed a daunting meter climb from the narrow tropical coastal plain in just over a hundred kilometers.
The narrow, slippery road in the mountain mists was treacherous for mule trains, and in some cases mules were hoisted by ropes.
Many tumbled with their cargo to their deaths. Although New Spain produced considerable sugar and wheat, these were consumed exclusively in the colony even though there was demand elsewhere.
Philadelphia, not New Spain, supplied Cuba with wheat. The Caribbean port of Veracruz was small, with its hot, pestilential climate not a draw for permanent settlers: its population never topped 10, European diseases immediately affected the multiethnic Indian populations in the Veracruz area and for that reason Spaniards imported black slaves as either an alternative to indigenous labor or its complete replacement in the event of a repetition of the Caribbean die-off.
A few Spaniards acquired prime agricultural lands left vacant by the indigenous demographic disaster. Portions of the province could support sugar cultivation and as early as the s sugar production was underway.
New Spain's first viceroy, Don Antonio de Mendoza established an hacienda on lands taken from Orizaba.
Indians resisted cultivating sugarcane themselves, preferring to tend their subsistence crops. As in the Caribbean, black slave labor became crucial to the development of sugar estates.
During the period — when Spain and Portugal were ruled by the same monarch and Portuguese slave traders had access to Spanish markets, African slaves were imported in large numbers to New Spain and many of them remained in the region of Veracruz.
In the crown created a monopoly on tobacco, which directly affected agriculture and manufacturing in the Veracruz region.
Tobacco was a valuable, high-demand product. Men, women, and even children smoked, something commented on by foreign travelers and depicted in eighteenth-century casta paintings.
It also established a small number of manufactories of finished products, and licensed distribution outlets estanquillos. In during the Bourbon Reforms Veracruz became an intendancy , a new administrative unit.
Founded in as a Spanish settlement, Puebla de los Angeles quickly rose to the status of Mexico's second-most important city. Its location on the main route between the viceregal capital and the port of Veracruz, in a fertile basin with a dense indigenous population, largely not held in encomienda, made Puebla a destination for many later arriving Spaniards.
If there had been significant mineral wealth in Puebla, it could have been even more prominent a center for New Spain, but its first century established its importance.
In it became the capital of an intendancy of the same name. It became the seat of the richest diocese in New Spain in its first century, with the seat of the first diocese, formerly in Tlaxcala, moved there in Merchants, manufacturers, and artisans were important to the city's economic fortunes, but its early prosperity was followed by stagnation and decline in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
The foundation of the town of Puebla was a pragmatic social experiment to settle Spanish immigrants without encomiendas to pursue farming and industry.
It was located in a fertile basin on a temperate plateau in the nexus of the key trade triangle of Veracruz—Mexico City—Antequera Oaxaca.
Although there were no encomiendas in Puebla itself, encomenderos with nearby labor grants settled in Puebla.
And despite its foundation as a Spanish city, sixteenth-century Puebla had Indians resident in the central core.
Puebla's Spanish town council cabildo had considerable autonomy and was not dominated by encomenderos. The administrative structure of Puebla "may be seen as a subtle expression of royal absolutism, the granting of extensive privileges to a town of commoners, amounting almost to republican self-government, in order to curtail the potential authority of encomenderos and the religious orders, as well as to counterbalance the power of the viceregal capital.
Puebla built a significant manufacturing sector, mainly in textile production in workshops obrajes , supplying New Spain and markets as far away as Guatemala and Peru.
Transatlantic ties between a particular Spanish town, Brihuega , and Puebla demonstrate the close connection between the two settlements. The take-off for Puebla's manufacturing sector did not simply coincide with immigration from Brihuega but was crucial to "shaping and driving Puebla's economic development, especially in the manufacturing sector.
Although obrajes in Brihuega were small-scale enterprises, quite a number of them in Puebla employed up to workers. Supplies of wool, water for fulling mills, and labor free indigenous, incarcerated Indians, black slaves were available.
Although much of Puebla's textile output was rough cloth, it also produced higher quality dyed cloth with cochineal from Oaxaca and indigo from Guatemala.
In , Puebla became an intendancy as part of the new administrative structuring of the Bourbon Reforms. Mexico City dominated the Valley of Mexico, but the valley continued to have dense indigenous populations challenged by growing, increasingly dense Spanish settlement.
The Valley of Mexico had many former Indian city-states that became Indian towns in the colonial era. These towns continued to be ruled by indigenous elites under the Spanish crown, with an indigenous governor and a town councils.
The capital was provisioned by the indigenous towns, and its labor was available for enterprises that ultimately created a colonial economy.
The gradual drying up of the central lake system created more dry land for farming, but the sixteenth-century population declines allowed Spaniards to expand their acquisition of land.
One region that retained strong Indian land holding was the southern fresh water area, with important suppliers of fresh produce to the capital. The area was characterized by intensely cultivated chinampas, man-made extensions of cultivable land into the lake system.
These chinampa towns retained a strong indigenous character, and Indians continued to hold the majority of that land, despite its closeness to the Spanish capital.
A key example is Xochimilco. Texcoco in the pre-conquest period was one of the three members of the Aztec Triple Alliance and the cultural center of the empire.
It fell on hard times in the colonial period as an economic backwater. Spaniards with any ambition or connections would be lured by the closeness of Mexico City, so that the Spanish presence was minimal and marginal.
Tlaxcala, the major ally of the Spanish against the Aztecs of Tenochtitlan, also became something of a backwater, but like Puebla it did not come under the control of Spanish encomenderos.
No elite Spaniards settled there, but like many other Indian towns in the Valley of Mexico, it had an assortment of small-scale merchants, artisans, farmers and ranchers, and textile workshops obrajes.
Since portions of northern New Spain became part of the United States' Southwest region , there has been considerable scholarship on the Spanish borderlands in the north.
The motor of the Spanish colonial economy was the extraction of silver. The region farther north of the main mining zones attracted few Spanish settlers.
Where there were settled indigenous populations , such as in the present-day state of New Mexico and in coastal regions of Baja and Alta California , indigenous culture retained considerable integrity.
The region did not have indigenous populations that practiced subsistence agriculture. From diverse cultural backgrounds and with no sustaining indigenous communities, these indios were quickly hispanized, but largely remained at the bottom of the economic hierarchy.
Land owners lent workers money, which could be seen as a perpetual indebtedness, but it can be seen not as coercing Indians to stay but a way estate owners sweetened their terms of employment, beyond their basic wage labor.
However, where labor was more abundant or market conditions depressed, estate owners paid lower wages. As with hacendados, renters produced for the commercial market.
Many renters retained ties to the estates, diversifying their household's sources of income and level of economic security. Areas of northern Mexico were incorporated into the United States in the mid-nineteenth century, following Texas independence and the Mexican—American War —48 and generally known as the "Spanish Borderlands.
The Presidios forts , pueblos civilian towns and the misiones missions were the three major agencies employed by the Spanish crown to extend its borders and consolidate its colonial holdings in these territories.
The town of Albuquerque present day Albuquerque, New Mexico was founded in From , Jesuits established eighteen missions throughout the Baja California Peninsula.
Between and several missions were founded in Trinidad , but only four survived as Amerindian villages throughout the 18th century. In , explorers and missionaries visited the interior of Texas and came upon a river and Amerindian settlement on 13 June, the feast day of St.
Anthony , and named the location and river San Antonio in his honor. Accordingly, he resigned as governor in and left New Mexico, having spent much of his personal wealth on the enterprise.
In , Pedro de Peralta , a later governor of the Province of New Mexico , established the settlement of Santa Fe near the southern end of the Sangre de Cristo mountain range.
Missions were established to convert the locals, and manage the agricultural industry. The territory's indigenous population resented the Spanish prohibition of their traditional religion, and the encomienda system of forced labor.
After the return of the Spanish in , the final resolution included a marked reduction of Spanish efforts to eradicate native culture and religion, the issuing of substantial communal land grants to each Pueblo, and a public defender of their rights and for their legal cases in Spanish courts.
In the Province came under the new Provincias Internas jurisdiction. In the late 18th century the Spanish land grant encouraged the settlement by individuals of large land parcels outside Mission and Pueblo boundaries, many of which became ranchos.
Not until the eighteenth century was California of much interest to the Spanish crown, since it had no known rich mineral deposits or indigenous populations sufficiently organized to render tribute and do labor for Spaniards.
The discovery of huge deposits of gold in the Sierra Nevada foothills did not come until after the U.
By the middle of the s, the Catholic order of Jesuits had established a number of missions on the Baja lower California peninsula.
The method used to "occupy and fortify" was the established Spanish colonial system: missions misiones , between and twenty-one missions were established aimed at converting the Native Californians to Christianity, forts presidios , four total to protect the missionaries, and secular municipalities pueblos , three total.
As a result, the colonial population of California remained small, widely scattered and near the coast. In , the north-western frontier areas came under the administration of the new 'Commandancy General of the Internal Provinces of the North' Provincias Internas , designed to streamline administration and invigorate growth.
The crown created two new provincial governments from the former Las Californias in ; the southern peninsula became Baja California, and the ill-defined northern mainland frontier area became Alta California.
Once missions and protective presidios were established in an area, large land grants encouraged settlement and establishment of California ranchos.
The Spanish system of land grants was not very successful, however, because the grants were merely royal concessions—not actual land ownership.
Under later Mexican rule, land grants conveyed ownership, and were more successful at promoting settlement. Rancho activities centered on cattle-raising; many grantees emulated the Dons of Spain , with cattle, horses and sheep the source of wealth.
Native-born descendants of the resident Spanish-heritage rancho grantees, soldiers, servants, merchants, craftsmen and others became the Californios.
Many of the less-affluent men took native wives, and many daughters married later English, French and American settlers. After the Mexican War of Independence and subsequent secularization "disestablishment" of the missions , Mexican land grant transactions increased the spread of the rancho system.
The land grants and ranchos established mapping and land-ownership patterns that are still recognizable in present-day California and New Mexico.
The villa of Campeche was the peninsula's port, the key gateway for the whole region. A merchant group developed and expanded dramatically as trade flourished during the seventeenth century.
Blacks were an important component of Yucatecan society. The Maya community, the cah , was the means by which indigenous cultural integrity was maintained.
In the economic sphere, unlike many other regions and ethnic groups in Mesoamerica, the Yucatec Maya did not have a pre-conquest network of regular markets to exchange different types of food and craft goods.
Perhaps because the peninsula was uniform in its ecosystem local niche production did not develop. Access to water was a limiting factor on agriculture, with the limestone escarpment giving way in water filled sinkholes cenotes , but rivers and streams were generally absent on the peninsula.
Individuals had rights to land so long as they cleared and tilled them and when the soil was exhausted, they repeated the process. Collective labor cultivated the confraternities' lands, which included raising the traditional maize, beans, and cotton.
But confraternities also later pursued cattle ranching, as well as mule and horse breeding, depending on the local situation.
In —17 viceroy of New Spain organized a sufficient ships to expel the foreigners, where the crown subsequently built a fortress at Isla del Carmen.
In the nineteenth century, the enclave supplied guns to the rebellious Maya in the Caste War of Yucatan.
Since Oaxaca was lacking in mineral deposits and it had an abundant sedentary indigenous population, its development was notable for the lack of European or mixed-race population, lack of large-scale Spanish haciendas, and the survival of indigenous communities.
These communities retained their land, indigenous languages, and distinct ethnic identities. Antequera now Oaxaca City was a Spanish settlement founded in , but the rest of Oaxaca consisted of indigenous towns.
Despite its remoteness from Mexico City, "throughout the colonial era, Oaxaca was one of Mexico's most prosperous provinces. The most important commodity for Oaxaca was cochineal red dye.
Cochineal's commodity chain is an interesting one, with indigenous peasants in the remote areas of Oaxaca ultimately linked to Amsterdam and London commodity exchanges and the European production of luxury cloth.
The rich, color-fast red dye produced from insects, was harvested from nopal cacti. Cochineal was a high-value, low-volume product that became the second-most valuable Mexican export after silver.
Although it could be produced elsewhere in central and southern Mexico, its main region of production was Oaxaca.
For the indigenous in Oaxaca, cochineal was the only one "with which the [tributaries] maintain themselves and pay their debts" but it also had other advantages for them.
Although the repartimiento has historically been seen as an imposition on the indigenous, forcing them into economic relations they would rather have avoided and maintained by force,  recent work on eighteenth-century Oaxaca analyzes the nexus of crown officials the alcaldes mayores and Spanish merchants, and indigenous via the repartimiento.
Indigenous elites were an integral part of the repartimiento, often being recipients of large extensions of credit. As authority figures in their community, they were in a good position to collect on the debt, the most risky part of the business from the Spanish point of view.
The Isthmus of Tehuantepec region of Oaxaca was important for its short transit between the Gulf Coast and the Pacific, facilitating both overland and sea trade.
The province of Tehuantepec was the Pacific side of the isthmus and the headwaters of the Coatzacoalcos River. Gold mining was an early draw for Spaniards, who directed indigenous labor to its extraction, but did not continue beyond the mid-sixteenth century.
Over the long run, ranching and commerce were the most important economic activities, with the settlement of Tehuantepec becoming the hub. The second period of approximately a century — saw the decline of the indigenous entailed estate cacicazgo and indigenous political power and development of the colonial economy and imposition of Spanish political and religious structures.
The final period is the maturation of these structures — The rebellion can be a dividing line between the two later periods.
The Villa of Tehuantepec , the largest settlement on the isthmus, was an important prehispanic Zapotec trade and religious center, which was not under the jurisdiction of the Aztecs.
The Marquesado continued to have major private holdings in the province. The Villa of Tehuantepec became a center of Spanish and mixed-race settlement, crown administration, and trade.
However important the Marquesado and the Dominican enterprises were, there were also other economic players in the region, including individual Spaniards as well as existing indigenous communities.
Ranching emerged as the dominant rural enterprise in most of Tehuantepec with a ranching boom in the period — Since Tehuantepec experienced significant indigenous population loss in the sixteenth century conforming to the general pattern, ranching made possible for Spaniards to thrive in Tehuantepec because ranching was not dependent on significant amounts of indigenous labor.
The most detailed economic records for the region are of the Marquesado's ranching haciendas, which produced draft animals horses, mules, burros, and oxen and sheep and goats, for meat and wool.
Cattle ranching for meat, tallow, and leather were also important. Tallow for candles used in churches and residences and leather used in a variety of ways saddles, other tack, boots, furniture, machinery were significant items in the larger colonial economy, finding markets well beyond Tehuantepec.
Since the Marquesado operated as an integrated enterprise, draft animals were used in other holdings for transport, agriculture, and mining in Oaxaca, Morelos, Toluca, and Mexico City as well as sold.
Raised in Tehuantepec, the animals were driven to other Marquesado holdings for use and distribution. Although colonial population decline affected the indigenous in Tehuantepec, their communities remained important in the colonial era and remain distinctly Indian to the current era.
There were differences in the three distinct linguistic and ethnic groups in colonial Tehuantepec, the Zapotec , the Zoque , and the Huave. The Zapotecs concluded an alliance with the Spaniards at contact, and they had already expanded their territory into Zoque and Huave regions.
Under Spanish rule, the Zapotecs not only survived, but flourished, unlike the other two. They continued to pursue agriculture, some of it irrigated, which was not disrupted by the growing ranching economy.
Generally Zapotec elites protected their communities from Spanish incursions and community cohesion remained strong as shown in members' performance of regular community service for social ends.
Zapotec elites engaged in the market economy early on, which undermined to an extent the bonds between commoners and elites who colluded with the Spanish.
In contrast to the Zapotecs, the Zoque generally declined as a group during the ranching boom, with interloping animals eating their maize crops.
Zoque response was to take up being vaqueros themselves. They had access to the trade to Guatemala. Of the three indigenous groups, the Huave were the most isolated from the Spanish ranching economy and labor demands.
They traded dried shrimp and fish, as well as purple dye from shells to Oaxaca, likely acquiring foodstuffs that they were unable to cultivate themselves.
Not well documented is the number of African slaves and their descendants, who were artisans in urban areas and did hard manual labor in rural areas.
In general, Tehuantepec was not a site of major historical events, but in —61, there was a significant rebellion stemming from increased repartimiento Spanish demands.
With the growth of a sufficient Spanish population and the crown's desire to better govern the area, it established the Captaincy General of Guatemala , which had primary jurisdiction over what are now Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica.
The region was diverse, and outlying provinces were resentful for elites in capital of Antigua Guatemala , destroyed by an earthquake in There was a high court Audiencia in the Kingdom of Guatemala.
Given the region's distance from major centers of power in New Spain and Spain itself, local strongmen in the early were only nominally subject to royal authority.
The indigenous population was very large in comparison to the Spanish, and there were relatively few Africans.
Spaniards continued to employ forced labor in the region starting with the conquest era and exact tribute from the indigenous. Orchards of cacao trees, which took a number of years to come to maturity and produce fruit.
Cacao boomed in the late sixteenth century, and then was displaced by indigo as the most important export product.
Indigo, like cacao, was native to the region, and the indigenous peoples gathered wild indigo, used for dying cloth and as a trade good.
After the arrival of the Spanish, they domesticated indigo and created plantations for its cultivation in Yucatan, El Salvador, and Guatemala.
The indigo industry thrived, since there was high demand in Europe for a high quality, color-fast blue dye. It was a dangerous work environment, with toxins present in the indigo plants that sickened and sometimes killed workers.
It was profitable, especially following the Bourbon Reforms , which allowed trade within the Spanish empire. In the late eighteenth century, indigo growers organized in a trade organization, the Consulado de Comercio.
An American-born Spanish elite criollos accumulated land and built fortunes on wheat, sugar, and cattle, all of which were consumed within the region.
Spanish settlers brought to the American continent smallpox , measles , typhoid fever , and other infectious diseases.
Most of the Spanish settlers had developed an immunity to these diseases from childhood, but the indigenous peoples lacked the needed antibodies since these diseases were totally alien to the native population at the time.
There were at least three separate, major epidemics that decimated the population: smallpox to , measles to and typhus to Therefore, at the start of the 17th century, continental New Spain was a depopulated country with abandoned cities and maize fields.
These diseases would not affect the Philippines in the same way because the diseases were already present in the country; Pre-Hispanic Filipinos had contact with other foreign nationalities before the arrival of the Spaniards.
While different intendencies would perform censuses to get a detailed insight in regards to its inhabitants namely occupation, number of persons per household, ethnicity etc.
The census is also known as the "Revillagigedo census" because its creation was ordered by the Count of the same name. Most of the census' original datasets have reportedly been lost; thus most of what is known about it nowadays comes from essays and field investigations made by academics who had access to the census data and used it as reference for their works, such as Prussian geographer Alexander von Humboldt.
Each author gives different estimations for the total population, ranging from 3,, to 6,,   more recent data suggests that the actual population of New Spain in was closer to 5 or 5.
The authors assert that rather than whites and mestizos having higher birthrates, the reason for the indigenous population's numbers decreasing lies on them suffering of higher mortality rates, due to living in remote locations rather than in cities and towns founded by the Spanish colonists or being at war with them.
It is also for these reasons that the number of Indigenous Mexicans presents the greater variation range between publications, as in cases their numbers in a given location were estimated rather than counted, leading to possible overestimations in some provinces and possible underestimations in others.
Once New Spain achieved its independence, the legal basis of the Colonial caste system was abolished and mentions of a person's caste in official documents were also abandoned, which led to the exclusion of racial classification in the censuses to come and difficulted to keep track of the demographic development of each ethnicity that lived in the country.
More than a century would pass for Mexico to conduct a new census on which a person's race was taken into account, in ,  but even then, due to it showing huge inconsistencies regarding other official registers as well as its historic context, modern investigators have deemed it inaccurate.
Some of the most important early buildings in New Spain were churches and other religious architecture. Civil architecture included the viceregal palace, now the National Palace, and the Mexico City town council cabildo , both located on the main square in the capital.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Kingdom of the Spanish Empire — Flag of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. Maximum extent of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, with the addition of Louisiana — The areas in light green are territories claimed by Spain.
Main article: Spanish Empire. Main article: History of Roman Catholicism in Mexico. Main article: Spanish colonization of the Americas.
Main article: History of the Philippines. Main articles: Spanish treasure fleet and Manila galleon. Main article: Economic history of Mexico.
Main article: Bourbon Reforms. See also: Louisiana New Spain. See also: Royal Audiencia of Mexico. Main article: History of Mexico City.
Main article: Captaincy General of Guatemala. Main articles: Mexican art and Mexican architecture. Philippines portal Mexico portal Spain portal History portal.
For a complete chart, see Hamnett , p. Retrieved 8 July Austin: University of Texas Press Chicago: University of Chicago Press Chicago: University of Chicago Press , p.
New York Ember; Melvin Ember; Ian A. Skoggard, eds. Philippines: Google map of Paco district of Manila, Philippines.
Archived from the original on 7 May Central Milton Keynes: Author House Cleveland, Ohio. Stanford, Calif. Archived from the original on 6 March Retrieved 24 June Prentice Hall , London: Athlone Revised edition.
Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press Gainesville: University of Florida Press Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn , p.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press , pp. Prentice Hall , pp. Page ; Citation "According to Ricardo Pinzon, these two Filipino soldiers—Francisco Mongoy and Isidoro Montes de Oca—were so distinguished in battle that they are regarded as folk heroes in Mexico.
General Vicente Guerrero later became the first president of Mexico of African descent. See Floro L. Mexico: Pearson Education.
This is the definitive study of the tobacco monopoly. VIII , Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press Berkeley: University of California Press New York: Charles Scribner's Sons Archived from the original PDF on 31 July Retrieved 24 August London: Scarecrow Press, Retrieved on 25 July Departamento de la Estadistica Nacional.
Archived from the original PDF on 4 March Mexico Racista. Penguin Random house Grupo Editorial Mexico. Retrieved 23 February Altman, Ida The Early History of Greater Mexico.
Prentice Hall. The Spanish Borderlands Frontier: By adding an estimated 4. Intersolar Summit Spain in Barcelona will provide insights and excellent networking opportunities.
The forecasts for the future development remain promising. A total installed solar PV capacity of What role corporate sourcing of renewables and PPAs Power Purchase Agreements will play in this process and what obstacles still have to be overcome will be discussed on May 19, at Intersolar Summit Spain in Barcelona.
After a successful start in , Intersolar Summit Spain is taking place for the second time and will welcome more than attendees. In the first decade of this century, Spain was already one of the leaders in solar energy.
In , Spain installed 3. As a result, solar energy grew strongly, but not sustainably.We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. With the increased Euro-American settlement in Spanish territory and the increased tensions resulting from Spanish trade and land policies, Euro-American interest in New Spain took on a new form after Free Online Bet Offers turn of the nineteenth century. The tributes count the total founding population of Spanish-Philippines aspeople,  of which: 20, were Chinese migrant Final Fantasy 14 Kostenlos,  at different times: around 16, individuals were Latino soldier-colonists who were cumulatively sent from Peru and Mexico and they were shipped Online Spielcasino Gold Club the Philippines annually,  3, were Japanese residents,  and were pure Spaniards from Europe,  there was also a large but unknown number of Indian Filipinosthe rest of the population were Malays and Negritos. Wikimedia Commons. Main articles: Mexican art and Mexican architecture. The repeated wars, lack of wages, dislocation and near starvation were so intense, almost half of the soldiers sent Pokerstars Free20 Latin America and the warriors and laborers recruited locally either died or disbanded to the lawless countryside to live as vagabonds among the rebellious natives, escaped enslaved Indians From India  and Negrito nomads, where they race-mixed through rape or prostitution which increased the number of Filipinos of Spanish or Latin American descent but where not the children of valid marriages. Spain's arrival in the New New Era Spain resulted in widespread death and depopulation for the native people of the Western Hemisphere. Hauptinhalt anzeigen. Wir können die Rückzahlung verweigern,bis wir die Waren wieder zurückerhalten haben oder bis Sie den Nachweis erbracht haben,dass Sie die Waren zurückgesandt haben, je nachdem, welches der frühere Zeitpunkt ist. Der Verkäufer versendet den Artikel innerhalb von Sunmaker Bonus Ohne Einzahlung 2017 Werktag nach Zahlungseingang. Diese Zusammenarbeit bildet auch heute noch die Basis der unternehmerischen Tätigkeit des Labels. Angaben ohne Gewähr. Dieser Artikel wird nach Frankreich geliefert, aber der Verkäufer hat keine Versandoptionen festgelegt. Lieferung in Werktagen nach Zahlungseingang. Bildinformationen Kostenloser Versand. New Era — ein Muss für alle Cap-Liebhaber! Zurück zur Startseite. New Era-Caps warten mit einer langen Tradition und bester Qualität auf. Ähnlichen Artikel Sizzling Hot Spielen Kostenlos Spielen Ohne Anmeldung Sie müssen für einen etwaigen Wertverlust der Waren nur aufkommen, Thsv Eisenach Live dieser Wertverlust auf Paypal Karten Kaufen zur Prüfung der Beschaffenheit, Eigenschaften und Funktionsweise der Waren nicht notwendigen Umgang mit ihnen zurückzuführen ist. Rechtliche Informationen Bet Sport Games Verkäufers. Selbst verkaufen.
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In the course of the financial crisis, the Spanish government drastically reduced subsidies for solar power in Spain and cut future additional capacity to MW per year.
These decisions led to a stagnation of new installations in the following years. Only with the new government in , solar energy was given more importance again and, among other things, the controversial solar tax was abolished.
It defines caps on national greenhouse gas emissions, taking into account renewable energy and energy efficiency measures.
Nevertheless, it is important to keep the possible barriers in mind. According to SolarPower Europe these are mainly the issues financing, network injection capacity and administrative procedures.
And they can dream when they watch players like us in the top division, in the Champions League and simply being professionals and dedicating ourselves to football.
It is worth noting that Spain has long had the raw talent, with an outstanding record at junior level.
Here too, though, there is clear progress. You can pre-order your copy here. It was far too vast a domain to be held militarily, and it produced no golden cities.
Thus only isolated outposts were established, the most important of which were in the present states of Texas , New Mexico , and California.
The sparsely populated northern frontier regions had to adapt to frontier life and thus differed in structure from southern New Spain.
The most important frontier institutions were the presidios military garrisons and the Spanish missions , where Franciscan, Jesuit, and Dominican missionaries attempted to convert Indians to Catholicism and integrate them into colonial society.
Towns gradually grew up around some of the missions. The most successful and prosperous of these settlements was the kingdom of New Mexico.
The kingdom of New Mexico became a relatively prosperous colony, in comparison to the others in northern New Spain, primarily because the Pueblo Indians were already settled farmers with established towns near water.
By the early nineteenth century, New Spain was large and well populated, with slightly over six million people. This was only one million fewer than the population of the United States.
Mexico City was the largest city in the Americas. In Spain, only Madrid was larger. The people of New Spain were divided into castas , or castes.
Indians made up 60 percent of the population. People of mixed racial ancestry made up another 22 percent. The remaining 18 percent were Europeans, of whom nearly all were criollos people of Spanish ancestry, but born in the New World.
Only 0. The criollos were usually local leaders, holding nearly two-thirds of colonial administrative offices, and filling the lower ranks of the military and clergy.
Criollos also owned mines and haciendas plantations or large estates. The urban poor lived on the edge of starvation, regularly facing food shortages and plagues.
France invaded Spain in , and two years later Mexico began its war of independence. Spain was severely weakened. The United States absorbed much of West Florida in and On two occasions, it invaded the parts of Florida still under nominal Spanish rule to suppress raids on U.
In , Spain, unable to control the territory, sold Florida to the United States. That same year, a Mexican rebellion ended Spanish rule there and in Texas and the colonial empire of New Spain was dissolved.
By , Spain had relinquished all its possessions in North America. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.
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More From encyclopedia. Empire in the Americas, Spanish. Spanish Empire. Spanish Participation in the American Revolution. New Spain, the Viceroyalty of.Bei internationalen Verkäufen gelten die gesetzlichen Bestimmungen. Standardversand Deutsche Post Brief International. Ihre Beobachtungsliste ist voll. Weitere Every Game finden Sie in den Nutzungsbedingungen für das Programm zum weltweiten Versand - wird in neuem Fenster oder Tab geöffnet. Sie tragen die unmittelbaren Kosten der Rücksendung der Waren. Das letzte Exemplar! Dieser Artikel wird über das Programm zum weltweiten Versand verschickt und mit einer internationalen Sendungsnummer versehen. This is our Austrian website.